Knowledge on Different Types of ADHD Medications
Types of ADHD medications: A Comparison
ADHD is a developmental disorder that interferes with concentration and attention. Several drugs, including Adderall XR, Ritalin, and Strattera, can help manage symptoms. There are n numbers of medicines available and you just need the check out here different types of ADHD medication.
Typically, stimulant medicines are used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Types of ADHD Medications). Adderall XR, Vyvanse, and Concerta are common alternatives. Nonstimulant medications, such as Strattera or Intuniv XR, can also be used. Medications can have a brief, medium, or extended duration of action.
The optimum medication for a person is determined by a variety of criteria. These include the adverse effects of the medication, how long it lasts, and an individual’s own preferences. A doctor can advise on which type is ideal, but it is useful to understand the pros and drawbacks of each.
In this post, we will compare the many drugs available to help people manage types of ADHD medication symptoms.
ADHD Medicine List
ADHD can have an impact on self-control, concentration, working memory, and creative thinking. Medications that work on specific brain chemicals linked in ADHD, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, may help people control their symptoms.
To treat the symptoms of types of ADHD medication, doctors typically prescribe one of two types of medications:
In adults, adolescents, and children, stimulants are more effective than nonstimulants. They do, however, entail the danger of abuse and can produce rebound symptoms.
As a result, many people substitute nonstimulants. Long-acting stimulants, on the other hand, can minimize the likelihood of abuse.
The stimulant and nonstimulant medications available to treat types of ADHD medication symptoms are listed in the table below:
Bupropion (Wellbutrin), an antidepressant medicine, is sometimes recommended as a non-stimulant treatment for ADHD. This is considered a “off-label” use because this medicine is not FDA-approved to treat ADHD.
Stimulants are frequently prescribed as a first-line treatment for children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD. The Stimulants affect norepinephrine and dopamine, two brain chemicals that have been linked to types of ADHD medication.
Amphetamine stimulants are more effective and have fewer adverse effects in adults. Methylphenidate is the first choice for children and adolescents with ADHD.
What are the negative consequences?
The following are the most prevalent side effects of stimulant medicines for ADHD:
- elevated heart rate
- elevated blood pressure
- decreased appetite
- sleep difficulties
Serious heart problems are uncommon. Stimulant users with heart problems should be regularly monitored by doctors.
Central nervous system stimulants have a high risk of abuse and addiction. Longer-acting formulations having a lower risk of misuse, hence doctors prefer to use them.
What are possible ADHD Medication Interactions?
Several drugs can interact with stimulants.
Some people have types of ADHD medication as well as sadness or anxiety. As a result, doctors may combine an antidepressant or antianxiety drug with a stimulant to treat ADHD.
Antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) should not be used with stimulants. In fact, a person must wait at least 14 days after stopping any MAOI before beginning any stimulant medicine.
The following antidepressants interact with stimulants:
- SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
- SNRIs (serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors)
- antidepressants tricyclic
The sections that follow go into greater information about the various types of stimulant medicine for types of ADHD medication.
Medication that is stimulating
Many ADHD stimulant drugs contain methylphenidate, a chemical that works in the brain by raising dopamine levels. Long-term research have shown that methylphenidate is both safe and effective, making these drugs attractive alternatives.
Methylphenidate is found in a variety of long-acting medicines. There are additional quick-acting versions available.
Methylphenidate medicines with a long half-life include:
- XR Adhansia
- Adzenys ER and XR-ODT
- XR Aptensio
- XR-ODT from Cotempla
- Dexedrine Caplets
- XR Dyanavel
- PM Jornay
- ER QuilliChew
- XR Quillivant
- LA Ritalin
- generic pharmaceuticals
Methylphenidate medicines with a short half-life include:
- Evekeo ODT, Evekeo
- Ritalin Substitute
- generic pharmaceuticals
Other stimulant drugs, such as Adderall and Vyvanse, are also available.
Stimulant medicines with a long half-life
The parts that follow go into greater depth about long-acting stimulant medications.
To release methylphenidate, Concerta capsules employ osmotic-controlled release oral delivery system (OROS) technology. Methylphenidate has a long duration of action, releasing 22% instantly and the rest 78% gradually.
OROS technology is solely found in Concerta and is not found in generic versions. When a person takes Concerta, fluid from the stomach and intestines enters the tablet and gently pushes the medication out of the pill over the course of the day.
The medicine, like Biphentin, has a half-life of 10-12 hours. People can take a short-acting methylphenidate version if the drug wears off.
Concerta pills should not be cut or crushed. Concerta may be difficult to take for people who have difficulties swallowing medications.
Concerta’s generic name is methylphenidate ER. The medication in this product is not released using the OROS technology.
The main reason consumers prefer generic Concerta over Concerta is the lower cost. However, no clinical studies have been conducted to demonstrate that this generic alternative has the same impact as Concerta.
When clients transition from Concerta to its generic version, some clinicians notice behavioral abnormalities. Any behavioral changes observed by caregivers, loved ones, pharmacists, or doctors should be reported.
Ritalin LA is a pill that distributes half of the drug at once and the other half gradually throughout the day.
Children, adolescents, and adults with types of ADHD medication can be prescribed Ritalin LA by their doctors. This pill should not be crushed, chewed, or split.
Daytrana is a methylphenidate patch that is applied to the hip. Its effects have been researched in children aged 6 to 12 years, as well as those aged 13 to 17.
A person applies this patch to their skin two hours before they require the medication’s effects. They should take the patch off after no more than 9 hours.
A methylphenidate variation present in Focalin and Focalin XR is dextro-methylphenidate. This methylphenidate version is more potent than the regular form.
Focalin XR is Focalin’s extended-release version.
This drug can be prescribed by a doctor to people of all ages. Individuals can open the capsules and mix the contents with meals.
The principal active ingredient of Adderall XR, the long-acting variant of Adderall, is dextro-amphetamine. Types of ADHD medication can be prescribed by doctors to children, adolescents, and adults. As a long-acting medicine, it controls symptoms for 10-12 hours.
To treat symptoms later in the afternoon, doctors may need to give a short-acting amphetamine medication.
Lisdexamfetamine, an inactive form of amphetamine, is present in Vyvanse. When a person takes Vyvanse, the inactive medication is converted by the body into dextroamphetamine. Vyvanse works similarly to Adderall XR.
When children take Vyvanse, they can regulate their ADHD symptoms for 13 hours. Adults taking Vyvanse can experience 14 hours of symptom relief.
Dexedrine Spansules and Dexedrine
Dextro-amphetamine is present in Dexedrine and Dexedrine Spansules.
Because the Dexedrine Spansules last 6-8 hours and the pills only last 3-5 hours, patients tend to use it when the long-acting medicine wears out later in the day.
Xelstrym is an amphetamine patch that the FDA approved for the treatment of types of ADHD medication in 2023. It includes the same active component as Dexedrine and Dexedrine Spansules, dextroamphetamine.
The patch is administered daily and should be worn for no more than 9 hours. One patch should be used every day.
Mydayis is a newer dextroamphetamine and amphetamine formulation. It is a capsule that is normally taken when a person first wakes up each day.
This drug is intended to have a longer duration of action than other amphetamine formulations. One capsule can last up to 16 hours.
Dyanavel XR, Adzenys ER, and Adzenys XR-ODT
These are long-acting amphetamines that are allowed for usage in people above the age of six. They are usually taken once per day, in the morning.
Adzenys XR-ODT is a tablet that dissolves quickly and can be used without water. Dyanavel XR and Adzenys ER are both liquid formulations.
QuilliChew ER and Quillivant XR
Methylphenidate is found in two forms in Quillivant XR and QuilliChew ER. The majority of the medication is in a film-coated prolonged release form, with a small fraction in an immediate-release form. This means that a portion of the medication is absorbed instantly, while the remainder is absorbed over a period of 8-12 hours.
Quillivant is a powder that must be dissolved in water before swallowing, whereas QuilliChew is a chewable tablet.
Aptensio XR and Adhansia XR
Both Adhansia XR and Aptensio XR contain methylphenidate “multilayer bead” compositions. This implies that each capsule contains tiny beads of medication with an immediate-release coating on the outside and an extended-release layer on the inside.
They usually start working within an hour, just as other extended-release formulations of methylphenidate. Adhansia can be active for up to 12 hours, whilst Aptensio can be active for up to 16 hours.
Although Aptensio capsules can be opened and sprinkled on applesauce or yogurt, the beads should not be chewed.
XR-ODT from Cotempla
Cotempla XR-ODT is a tablet that dissolves quickly in the mouth, allowing it to be taken without the use of water. It is the first methylphenidate medicine of its kind, having been approved by the FDA in 2017.
Part of the medication is instantly active, while the extended-release medication in Cotempla can act for up to 8-12 hours.
Jornay PM is the first methylphenidate capsule with “delayed-release/extended-release” technology. It employs unique coatings to limit the absorption of drugs into the body. This means that Jornay PM can be taken at night and will become active 8-10 hours later. This impact could be beneficial for persons whose types of ADHD medication symptoms interfere with their early-morning functioning.
Relexxi is a methylphenidate extended-release tablet that will be approved by the FDA in 2022. It must be consumed entire. It is suitable for children above the age of six, as well as teens and adults.
Upper abdominal pain was the most common side effect of Relexxi in clinical trials in children and adolescents. Adults commonly experience side effects such as loss of appetite, headache, and dry mouth.
Azstarys is a once-daily medicine that contains the active ingredients serdexmethylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate. This is the first drug to have these two components.
The capsules can be taken whole or emptied into a glass of water or a little amount of applesauce.
Stimulant medicines with short and intermediate half-lives
The sections that follow go into greater information about several short- and intermediate-acting stimulant medications.
Adderall short-release comes in tablet form and is instantly absorbed by the body. People with types of ADHD medication are frequently prescribed this medication by doctors.
Evekeo ODT and Evekeo
Evekeo is a stimulant medicine. It is available as a tablet that can be ingested or crushed, as well as a quick-dissolve tablet (Evekeo ODT) that dissolves quickly in the mouth.
Evekeo can be administered for children aged 3 to 17.
Ritalin, Ritalin SR, and generics are all available.
Methylphenidate comes in short-acting forms such as Ritalin, Ritalin SR, and generic equivalents. They instantly release methylphenidate, but the impact is short-lived, therefore people must take numerous dosages each day.
Methylin is another methylphenidate drug with a short half-life. It is available in liquid and chewable tablet form.
Methylin is commonly taken twice a day, before breakfast and lunch, by children and adolescents over the age of six. Adults should take Methylin twice a day, usually before meals.
Focalin is a short-acting form of Focalin XR that contains dextro-methylphenidate.
These capsules can be opened and sprinkled on food. Doctors can prescribe Focalin and Focalin XR to patients of all ages.
The active component in Dexoxyn is methamphetamine. It comes in tablet form and is usually taken once or twice daily by children over the age of six.
Zenzedi and Procentra
Procentra and Zenzedi are dextroamphetamine-containing medicines. Zenzedi is the brand name for a newer tablet form, while Procentra is a liquid.
Zenzedi can be administered to children as young as 3 years old. Children aged 3 to 5 usually take this drug once a day, whereas children aged 6 and over may take it once or twice a day.
Nonstimulants ADHD Medication Types
Nonstimulant drugs work on a variety of different pathways, providing an additional therapy alternative. Nonstimulant drugs may be prescribed by doctors in conjunction with stimulants or on their own.
Some patients cannot endure the adverse effects of stimulant drugs and must instead use nonstimulant meds.
When people take nonstimulant drugs, they may not experience any improvement in their symptoms for 6-8 weeks. As a result, this treatment is not suitable for patients who want immediate symptom relief.
There are a number of nonstimulant medications available for ADHD:
- XR Intuniv
Because stimulants can exacerbate anxiety, Strattera may be beneficial for patients with types of ADHD medication who also have anxiety. Doctors can prescribe it to children, adolescents, and adults. If necessary, people can take both stimulant medicines and Strattera.
The most common adverse effects of Strattera include nausea and stomach distress. People should not open Strattera capsules since the medication may irritate their eyes; instead, they should swallow Strattera capsules whole, which can be difficult for some people.
Quelbree is a newer medicine that operates similarly to Strattera. Both drugs are intended to enhance the quantity of a neurotransmitter called norepinephrine in your brain.
This drug is appropriate for children aged 6 to 17 as well as adults. Sleep issues, weariness, loss of appetite, and nausea or vomiting are all possible adverse effects.
Because Qelbree may interact with other medications, it is critical to consult with a doctor or pharmacist if you are taking any other medications.
Qelbree capsules can be cracked and sprinkled over applesauce for those who have trouble swallowing medications.
Doctors recommend Intuniv XR to treat ADHD symptoms in children aged 6 to 12.
The main advantage of this drug is that its effects can extend into the evening and early morning. Children with other disorders, such as anxiety, aggressiveness, and tics, can benefit from Intuniv XR.
You shouldn’t break, chew, or crush the tablets. They need to eat them up whole.
When a person begins taking Intuniv XR, they may suffer weariness as well as a drop in their blood pressure and pulse. These side effects may also develop when the dosage is increased.
If you are taking Intuniv XR, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are also taking any heart drugs. People should use caution when taking such medications to avoid having their heart rate drop too low. Doctors and pharmacists should urge caregivers not to abruptly cease giving Intuniv XR to their children since blood pressure and pulse may rise.
Many medications, including ketoconazole and valproic acid, can interact with Intuniv XR. To avoid potentially harmful interactions, persons taking Intuniv XR should inform their doctors and pharmacists about any other medications they are taking. They should also avoid eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice while taking Intuniv XR.
This medicine is an alpha-2 agonist that can also be used to treat high blood pressure. Kapvay is prescribed by doctors for children aged 6 to 17 with ADHD.
It is recommended to take it twice day. It is important that the tablets not be crushed, chewed, or broken.
Different Cure Treatment
Some studies have found that treating types of ADHD medication with a combination of medication and psychosocial therapy is the most successful method.
Interventions can be broken down into five categories:
- Modifications to One’s Behaviour
- interventions in society
- Adaptations for Academic and Professional Purposes
Children older than 8 can benefit from psychoeducation. Children and their caretakers receive information about ADHD and its effects as part of this intervention.
People of all ages who have ADHD medication can benefit from behavioral therapies developed by healthcare professionals, such as coaching and modifications to diet and routine. Their goal is to influence behavior through the use of incentives and penalties.
People can learn to interact with others better and control their emotions with the help of social treatments.
Teens and adults can gain from cognitive behavioral therapy, family counseling, and positive self-talk. A psychotherapist’s toolkit may include counseling, play therapy, and the expressive arts.
People with different types of ADHD medication can get supplementary support at a variety of educational and vocational facilities, such as through special education programs and workplace initiatives.
People who suffer from ADHD are typically given extended-release versions of stimulant medications as their primary course of treatment. They make it possible for people to continue to experience the beneficial effects of the drug even while at work or school.
Longer-acting drugs are preferred by doctors since there is less of a chance that patients may abuse them.
People who suffer from types of ADHD medication may benefit from taking medication in conjunction with participating in psychosocial treatment, as this has been recommended by medical authorities.